Recent Substance Abuse Research
Limitations of the protective measure theory in explaining the role of childhood sexual abuse in eating disorders, addictions, and obesity: an updated model with emphasis on biological embedding
Wiss DA, Brewerton TD, Tomiyama AJ. Limitations of the protective measure theory in explaining the role of childhood sexual abuse in eating disorders, addictions, and obesity: an updated model with emphasis on biological embedding. Eat Weight Disord. 2021 Sep 2. doi: 10.1007/s40519–021–01293–3. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34476763.
- “In addition to its immediate negative consequences, childhood sexual abuse is associated with lifelong deleterious mental and physical health outcomes. This review employs a biopsychosocial perspective to better understand pathways from childhood sexual abuse to eating disorders, food and drug addictions, and obesity across the life course.”
- “Guided by an updated conceptual model, this review delineates how the biological embedding of childhood sexual abuse triggers a cascade of interrelated conditions that often result in failed attempts at weight suppression and eventually obesity. Such biological embedding involves pathways such as inflammation, allostatic load, reward sensitivity, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, epigenetics, and structural and functional changes in the brain.”
- “These pathways are in turn theorized to lead to food addiction, substance use disorder, and eating disorders-each with potential pathways toward obesity over time. Predisposing factors to childhood sexual abuse including gender, culture, and age are discussed.”
- “This model calls into question the longstanding “protective measure” theory that purports individuals exposed to sexual abuse will deliberately or subconsciously gain weight in attempt to prevent future victimization. A more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms by which childhood sexual abuse becomes biologically embedded may help clinicians and survivors normalize and/or address disordered eating and weight-related outcomes, as well as identify intervention strategies.”
Immunopharmacotherapeutic advancements in addressing methamphetamine abuse
Lee JC, Janda KD. Immunopharmacotherapeutic advancements in addressing methamphetamine abuse. RSC Chem Biol. 2020 Oct 8;2(1):77–93. doi: 10.1039/d0cb00165a. PMID: 34458776; PMCID: PMC8341824.
- “Methamphetamine (METH) is an illicit psychostimulant that is known to account for substance abuse disorders globally, second only to opioids, yet has no approved pharmacotherapies.”
- “Traditional therapies employ small molecule agonists or antagonists for substance use disorders or overdose reversal by targeting drug-specific receptors in the brain. However, the comprehensive mechanism of METH on multiple sites within the central nervous system (CNS) implies its receptors lack the high affinity and specificity required for an “ideal” drug target.”
- “The alternative to pharmacotherapies is to sequester abused drugs in the periphery, effectively eliminating the effects from CNS receptor occupation through pharmacokinetic antagonism.”
- “This review presents updates on immunopharmacotherapeutic advancements in addressing methamphetamine abuse by focusing on the cultivation of research optimization strategies regarding hapten chemistry, carrier proteins, and adjuvants implemented in active immunization. Furthermore, we discuss necessary developments for each component of active immunopharmacotherapies and the future of active vaccines in treating METH use disorder.”
Systematic Review of Smartphone Apps as a mHealth Intervention to Address Substance Abuse in Adolescents and Adults
Kazemi DM, Li S, Levine MJ, Auten B, Granson M. Systematic Review of Smartphone Apps as a mHealth Intervention to Address Substance Abuse in Adolescents and Adults. J Addict Nurs. 2021 Jul-Sep 01;32(3):180–187. doi: 10.1097/JAN.0000000000000416. PMID: 34473447.
- “ Substance abuse represents a foremost national concern for adolescents and adults; investigators have implemented a variety of interventions, delivered with both in-person and mobile-based apps’ modalities. The electronic techniques could be more effective because they avoid the cost, privacy, and accessibility issues associated with in-person intervention.”
- “To address this issue, a systematic review of the scientific evidence relative to the efficacy of app-based interventions delivered by mobile devices (smartphones) to reduce substance abuse in adolescents and adults was carried out.”
- “Studies were included if they had examined reductions in substance abuse and problem behaviors as a primary outcome with app-based interventions delivered to adolescents and adults.”
- “Use of app-based interventions showed some evidence of effectiveness in reducing substance abuse in the adolescent adult population.”
- “Most intervention studies analyzed focused on alcohol reduction. Further research is needed on diverse substance abuse utilizing larger sample sizes, longitudinal studies, and theoretical foundations on the practice of delivering interventions using mobile-based apps.”
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