Does cognitive improvement translate into functional changes? Exploring the transfer mechanisms of cognitive remediation therapy for euthymic people with bipolar disorder
Tsapekos D, Strawbridge R, Cella M, Young AH, Wykes T. Does cognitive improvement translate into functional changes? Exploring the transfer mechanisms of cognitive remediation therapy for euthymic people with bipolar disorder. Psychol Med. 2021 Jun 18:1–9. doi: 10.1017/S0033291721002336. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34140055.
- “Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with cognitive and functional difficulties, persistent beyond mood episodes. Cognitive remediation (CR) is a psychological therapy targeting cognitive and functioning difficulties.”
- “Recent evidence suggests that CR may enhance long-term functioning but transfer mechanisms on functional outcomes have not been explored. We aim to investigate whether and how cognitive gains after CR transfer to functional improvement.”
- “We considered data from a randomized controlled trial comparing CR (n = 40) to treatment-as-usual (TAU; n = 40) in euthymic people with BD. Treatment outcomes included individual cognitive domains and global cognition, psychosocial functioning, and goal attainment. Regression-based mediation and moderation modelling were used to assess whether and how post-treatment cognitive changes translate into functional improvement at follow-up, three months after treatment end.”
- “Cognitive gains after CR transferred to functional changes three months later: improvement in post-treatment global cognition partially mediated the effect of CR on psychosocial functioning (standardized indirect effect: -0.23, 95% CI -0.51 to -0.04). Goal attainment was not significantly mediated by changes in cognition, but post-treatment cognitive performance moderated the effect of CR on the GAS at follow-up (interaction effect: 0.78, 95% CI 0.08–1.55).”
- “Our findings suggest that cognitive improvements contribute to functional improvement but transfer mechanisms differ between psychosocial functioning and idiosyncratic recovery goals. Cognition accounted for only a proportion of the total CR effect on functional outcomes. Future studies should consider other variables, such as metacognition, that may drive the transfer of CR effects to functional outcomes.”
Long-term trajectory of cognitive performance in people with bipolar disorder and controls: 6-year longitudinal study
Sparding T, Joas E, Clements C, Sellgren CM, Pålsson E, Landén M. Long-term trajectory of cognitive performance in people with bipolar disorder and controls: 6-year longitudinal study. BJPsych Open. 2021 Jun 18;7(4):e115. doi: 10.1192/bjo.2021.66. PMID: 34140054.
- “Cross-sectional studies have found impaired cognitive functioning in patients with bipolar disorder, but long-term longitudinal studies are scarce.”
- “The aims of this study were to examine the 6-year longitudinal course of cognitive functioning in patients with bipolar disorder and healthy controls. Subsets of patients were examined to investigate possible differences in cognitive trajectories.”
- “Patients with bipolar I disorder (n = 44) or bipolar II disorder (n = 28) and healthy controls (n = 59) were tested with a comprehensive cognitive test battery at baseline and retested after 6 years. We conducted repeated measures ANCOVAs with group as a between-subject factor and tested the significance of group and time interaction.
- “By and large, the change in cognitive functioning between baseline and follow-up did not differ significantly between participants with bipolar disorder and healthy controls. Comparing subsets of patients, for example those with bipolar I and II disorder and those with and without manic episodes during follow-up, did not reveal subgroups more vulnerable to cognitive decline.”
- “Cognitive performance remained stable in patients with bipolar disorder over a 6-year period and evolved similarly to healthy controls. These findings argue against the notion of a general progressive decline in cognitive functioning in bipolar disorder.”
Personal recovery in bipolar disorder: Systematic review and “best fit” framework synthesis of qualitative evidence — a POETIC adaptation of CHIME
Jagfeld G, Lobban F, Marshall P, Jones SH. Personal recovery in bipolar disorder: Systematic review and “best fit” framework synthesis of qualitative evidence — a POETIC adaptation of CHIME. J Affect Disord. 2021 May 28;292:375–385. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2021.05.051. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34139411.
- “Personal recovery, living a satisfying, hopeful life alongside symptoms, has become an increasingly valued aim across mental health care agendas internationally. However, there is little understanding of how people experience personal recovery alongside the mood challenges characteristic of a bipolar disorder diagnosis. Personal recovery frameworks have been developed for populations with mixed psychiatric diagnoses, predominantly psychotic disorders.”
- “This systematic review of qualitative data used the widely adopted personal recovery processes Connectedness, Hope and optimism, Identity, Meaning and purpose, Empowerment (CHIME) in a “best fit” framework synthesis to understand personal recovery experiences in bipolar disorder. Included studies were coded with deductive framework analysis based on the CHIME processes and inductive thematic analysis for aspects beyond the a priori framework.”
- “ A comprehensive search of six literature databases led to inclusion of twelve articles published 2010–2020. Deductive coding supported the fit with the CHIME framework but revealed difficulties, losses, and tensions within and across recovery processes. The proposed framework for personal recovery in bipolar disorder, Purpose and meaning, Optimism and hope, Empowerment, Tensions, Identity, Connectedness (POETIC), organises all CHIME processes around these tensions.”
- “The compact POETIC personal recovery framework tailored for bipolar disorder is directly applicable to clinical practice with personal recovery objectives. It highlights the need for professionals to introduce personal recovery in a realistic and balanced way to address recent criticism by service user organisations of personal recovery as overly optimistic.”
The Treatment Scout website helps people find effective inpatient and residential care. It can also help you explore other intensive care options for mental health, addiction, etc. Find out more at http://www.treatmentscout.com/
NAMI Montana’s has a resource guide for every county in Montana. Check it out at https://namimt.org/montana-county-mental-health-resource-guides/